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Table 3

Summary of hydrometallurgical experiments.

Route Conditions Metal recovery/extraction (%) Phases of residue
Aqua Regia HCl:HNO3 = 3:1 Li-4.9, Co-35, Mn-18, Ni −6 LCO, LNMO
Inorganic acid leachinga 4 M H2SO4, 2 times of theoretical dosage of H2O2, 90 °C, 120 min, S/L:1:8 Li-28, Co-82, Mn-89, Ni-27 LCO, LNMO, Co3O4
Organic acid leachingb 1.5 citric acid solution, 2 vol % H2O2, 95 °C, 30 min, S/L: 1:20 Li-32, Co-80, Mn-69, Ni-29 LCO, LNMO, Co3O4
Tube furnace reductionc (inert) 850 °C, 30% C, 60 min Li-82, Co-82, Mn-45, Ni-16 No residue
Muffle furnace reductionc (ambient) 885 °C, 30% C, 60 min Li-83, Co-95, Mn-70, Ni-25 No residue

Yang et al. [22].


Musariri et al. [23].


As per present study.

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