This article has an erratum: [https://doi.org/10.1051/metal/2017086]
Rev. Met. Paris
Volume 106, Number 12, December 2009Selected papers from the 3rd International Seminar on Society & Materials, SAM3 - Freiberg, 29-30 April 2009
|Page(s)||559 - 565|
|Published online||08 December 2009|
Cadmium flows in Europe
A Material Flow Analysis (MFA) of cadmium for Europe (EU 27) is described in this paper. In general the purpose of this MFA is to provide a reliable set of time series data on the flows and stocks of cadmium as they pass through the European economy. For the data on cadmium flows in Europe various sources, statistics and surveys were taken into account. Data on import and export statistics, production and consumption of cadmium use, hidden flows of cadmium, the recovery and recycling of cadmium, especially batteries, as well as disposal and losses were considered. The study includes the whole life cycle of cadmium, starting from the raw material extraction, which is the basis for the metal production. Cadmium, as it is produced as a by-product of the zinc, lead and copper refinery, is further treated throughout various processes. Within the production and manufacturing, pre-consumer scrap is returned directly to the main production process. Afterwards the cadmium is used within various products, e.g. batteries. After the use phase, having reached the end-of-life within a specific application field, cadmium is recycled. What is not collected for recycling or returned to the recycling system, is lost in the environment. Finally, during the recycling process, cadmium is returned to the cadmium cycle as post-consumer scrap and what could not be recycled is disposed. One important outcome of the MFA of cadmium was the gained knowledge on available data and data sources within the cadmium industry. In particular, the inconsistency between the data sources became obvious. Nevertheless a comprehensive system was established which summarizes the cadmium flows in Europe and set up a MFA model as well as the linkages to available data sources of the cadmium industry. In addition to the data management system, the data gaps of relevance were identified to support future activities in this field.
© La Revue de Métallurgie, 2009
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